top of page

Education System in India- Part-4 Medieval Education

Medieval Education in India

During the ninth century A.D., a sizable Mohammadan invasion force swept across India. Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered India and used the seized resources to build a sizable number of schools and libraries there. Later, Muslim rulers created a lasting empire in India and introduced a new educational system. The old educational system underwent significant alteration. The most notable alteration was the Islamic educational model, which was distinct from the Buddhist and Brahminic education systems. The Arabs and Turks brought India new cultures, customs, and institutions. The Islamic and Mughal systems were heavily emphasised in the mediaeval educational system.

Aim of education

The dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of Islam were the primary goals of education during the mediaeval era. This educational age aimed to disseminate Islamic education, its tenets, and social mores. The purpose of the educational system was to instil a sense of religion in people.

Characteristics of education

The governing classes contributed to the growth and diffusion of education. Different educational institutions were founded with their assistance and funding, and wealthy landowners contributed financially as well. The management of educational institutions was not under the control of the ruling class. Even though students didn't live with their teachers then, the student-teacher relationship was as positive as it was throughout the Buddhist and Brahmanic eras. Teachers were interested in teaching at the time since they were accustomed to instructing students one-on-one.


Because books were not available at the time, pupils were forced to write on strategies. The emphasis was placed on teaching the pupil from the start, that is, teaching them the alphabet first and subsequently words. The most significant subjects taught back then were calligraphy and grammar. Students also learnt "paharas" (number multiples) and memorised them while learning. Arabic and Persian were the primary modes of communication, and these languages were essential for students aspiring to higher positions. The recital of the Quran was made compulsory, and pupils were required to memorise it as part of their curriculum.

The first 13 chapters of the Quran were taught to the students as poetry from a young age. Ibn Sina, an Islamic Persian scholar and educator, argues that pupils should be allowed to choose their preferred master's degree fields at the age of 14, including reading, manual skills, literature, medicine, geometry, trade, and business. In the Middle Ages, there were two distinct types of education: secular education and religious education. Study of the Quran, Muhammad and his conquests, Islamic law, and Islamic history make up religious education. Arabic literature, grammar, history, philosophy, mathematics, geography, politics, economics, the Greek language, and agriculture are among the subjects included in secular education.

Methods of learning

· The major modes of instruction at that age were oral, group discussions, and recitations of the lesson.

· Emperor Akbar urged the students to improve their writing and reading skills as well as the scripts. He advocated for teachers to teach children about the knowledge of the alphabet, then words, and finally sentence building because he wanted the educational system to be systematic.

· Practical education received more attention.

· There was no set half-year or annual assessment for pupils; instead, they were assessed based on real-world scenarios.

Educational institutions

Maktabs: The primary education centre for children of the general public is called Maktabs. Students also received instruction in disciplines like reading, writing, and math in addition to their religious education. Additionally, they were taught some Persian romance literature, such as Yusuf-Julekha and Laila-Majnu. Accountancy and letter-writing techniques were taught in Maktabs together with practical instruction.

Madarsas: The kids were sent to the Madarsas for higher education after completing their primary education at Maktabs. Higher education was centred at madarsas, and Emperor Akbar made a notable contribution to the development of mediaeval education. Akbar suspended the practice of the Islamic faith and ordered to teach Hinduism and philosophy in many Madrasas along with religious and practical education. Madarsas provided instruction in a variety of areas, including astrology, philosophy, arithmetic, history, geography, economics, and political science. Vedanta, law, and Patanjali were established as required courses for Sanskrit students by Akbar.

Important educational centres

Delhi: Nasiruddin founded the Madarsa-i-Nasiria during the rule of Shiraz Allauddin Khilji and several other Madarsas, many of whom had eminent instructors inside. In Delhi, the Mughal emperor Humayun founded several significant astronomical and geographic organisations. Additionally, he introduced schools that taught disciplines like Arabic, Persian, grammar, philosophy, and astronomy.

Agra: Sikandar Lodi built numerous Madarsas and Maktabs there and drew in numerous foreign students to come study. Akbar turned Agra into a hub for culture, the arts, and handicrafts.

Jaunpur: Sher Shah Suri finished his schooling at one of the city's educational institutions. Ibrahim Sharki established numerous Madarsas in Jaunpur, where the primary areas of instruction were political science, military, history, and philosophy.

Bidar: Mohammad Gawan built numerous Madarsas and Maktabs in this city, which later became renowned as a centre for study. The town has a library with 3000 volumes on Islamic theology, culture, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, history, and agriculture, among other topics.


Education in Islam and religion received more importance.

The kid wanted to concentrate on leadership to rule the nation.

53 दृश्य0 टिप्पणी

हाल ही के पोस्ट्स

सभी देखें


Rated 0 out of 5 stars.
No ratings yet

Add a rating
bottom of page