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Part 6 – Education System in India (Post-Independence):

Development of Education in India after Independence:

After independence, the Central Advisory Board of India decided to set up two commissions for recommending suggestions on University Education and School Education. These are known as under:

(1) University Education Commission 1948

(2) Mudaliar Commission 1952

University Education Commission 1948-49:

After independence, the Government of India appointed University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. It was formed on November 4, 1948, by the Government of India. The following were appointed members of the Commission: -

1. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, M.A., D. Litt., LL.D., Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics at the University of Oxford. (Chairman).

2. Dr. Tara Chand, M.A., D. Phil. (Oxon.), Secretary and Educational Adviser to the Government of India.

3. Dr. (now Sir) James F. Duff, M.A. (Cantab.), M. Ed. (Manchester), LL.D. (Aberdeen), Vice-Chancellor, University of Durham.

4. Dr. Zakir Hussain, M.A., Ph.D., D. Litt. (Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi)-(now ViceChancellor, Muslim University, Aligarh).

5. Dr. Arthur E. Morgan, D.Sc., D. Eng., LL.D., Former President, Antioch College, First Chairman, Tennessee Valley Authority, President, Community Service Inc.

6. Dr. A. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar, D.Sc., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.C.O.G., F.A.S.C., ViceChancellor, University of Madras.

7. Dr. Meghnad Saha, D.Sc. F.R.S., Palit professor of Physics Dean, Faculty of Science; and President, Post-Graduate Council of Science, University of Calcutta.

8. Dr. Karm. Narayan Bahl D. Sc (Panj.), D. Phil, and D. Sc. (Oxon), Professor of Zoology, University of Lucknow.

9. Dr. John J. Tigert, M.A. (Oxon.) LL.D., Ed. D., D.C.L., D. Litt., L.H.D., formerly Commissioner of Education of the United States, and President Emeritus of the University of Florida.

10. Shri Nirmal Kumar Siddhanta, M.A. (Cantab.), Professor of English and Dean, Faculty of Arts, University of Lucknow. (Secretary).

The main objective of the formation of a commission:

The following terms of reference of the Commission were to consider and make recommendations in regard to-

(i) The aims and objectives of university education and research in India.

(ii) The changes considered necessary and desirable in the constitution, control, functions and jurisdiction of universities in India and their relations with Governments, Central and Provincial.

(iii) The Finance of universities.

(iv) The maintenance of the highest standards of teaching and examination in the universities and colleges under their control.

(v) The courses of study in the universities with special reference to the maintenance of a sound balance between the Humanities and the Sciences and between pure science and technological training and the duration of such courses.

(vi) The standards of admission to university courses of study concerning the desirability of an independent university entrance examination and the avoidance of unfair discriminations which militate against Fundamental Right 23 (2).

(vii) The medium of instruction in the universities.

(viii) The provision for advanced study in Indian culture, history, literature, languages, philosophy and fine arts.

(ix) The need for more universities on a regional or other basis.

(x) The Organisation of advanced research in all branches of knowledge in the universities and Institutes of higher research in a well-coordinated fashion avoiding waste of effort and resources.

(xi) Religious instruction in the universities.

(xii) The special problems of the Banaras Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University, the Delhi University and other institutions of an all-India character.

(xiii) The qualifications, conditions of service, salaries, privileges and functions of teachers and the encouragement of original research by teachers.

(xiv) The discipline of students, hostels and the Organisation of tutorial work and any other matter which is germane and essential to a complete and comprehensive enquiry into all aspects of university education and advanced research in India.

Recommendations of the University Education Commission:

The Commission issued the following recommendations, some of which are still relevant today:

1 Education must be designed to awaken and foster a person's intrinsic abilities and to prepare them for the growth of self- and democratic attitudes. As a result, education serves to teach professional and vocational skills while also acquainting a person with their cultural heritage.

2 The importance of post-graduate education, training, and research for the advancement of knowledge was emphasised by the Commission.

3 It emphasised the importance of universities in studying agriculture in countries with agrarian economies like India and advocated giving higher education in rural areas particular consideration. It also emphasised the need to develop the technological and scientific foundation of the educational system.

4 Realising the significance of the medium of teaching, the Commission suggested that Indian languages should take the place of English as soon as practicable in higher education.

5 Government administrative services shouldn't require a college degree. Special state exams should be held to select people for various state services.

6 The Commission advised a complete investigation of the scientific techniques of educational testing and evaluation after realising the shortcomings of the examination system and the scope of the waste.

Mudaliar Commission 1952-53

The Government of India established the Secondary Education Commission on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar. It was called the Mudaliar Commission after him. The commission recommended diversifying the curriculum, adding an intermediate level, introducing three-tier undergraduate courses, etc.[

Objectives of the Secondary Education Commission:

By the mandate, the Commission was requested to

"(a) to enquire into and report on the present position of Secondary Education in India in all its aspects; and

(b) suggest measures for its reorganization and improvement with particular reference to-

(i) the aims, organization and content of Secondary Education;

(ii) its relationship to Primary, Basic and Higher Education;

(iii) the inter-relation of Secondary Schools of different types; and

iv) other allied problems.

so that a sound and reasonably uniform system of Secondary Education suited to our needs and resources may be provided for the whole country."


New Organisational Pattern

1. Under the new organisational structure, education should commence after a four of five years' period of Primary or Junior Basic education and should include

(a) the Middle or Senior Basic or Junior Secondary stage of 3 years, and

(b) the Higher Secondary stage of 4 years.

2. During the transitional stage, the existing High schools and the Higher Secondary schools should function on the lines laid down.

3. The present Intermediate stage should be replaced by the Higher Secondary stage which should be of four years' duration, one year of the present Intermediate being included in it.

4. As a consequence of the preceding recommendations the first-degree course in the university should be of three years' duration.

5. For those who pass out of High school there should be provision for a pre-university course of one year, during which period the scheme of studies should be MUDALIAR COMMISSION REPORT 192 planned with due regard to the needs of the degree or the professional course to be taken by the students and special emphasis should be placed on the quickening of intellectual interests, training in the method of study at college and the study of English so long as it continues to be the medium of instruction at the university.

6. Admission to professional colleges should be open to those who have completed the Higher Secondary course or have taken the one-year's pre-university course.

7. In the professional colleges, a pre-professional course -of one year should be provided for the students, preferably in the professional colleges themselves, but, as a transitory measure, they may be given in the degree colleges where facilities exist, till professional colleges can provide for such courses.

8. Multi-purpose schools should be established wherever possible to provide varied courses of interest to students with diverse aims, aptitudes and abilities.

9. Those who have completed such courses should be given opportunities to take up higher specialised courses in polytechnics or technological institutions.

10. All States should provide special facilities for agricultural education in rural schools and such courses should include Horticulture Animal Husbandry and Cottage Industry. Technical Education

11. Technical schools should be started in large numbers either separately or as part of multi-purpose schools.

12. Central Technical Institutes should be established in larger cities which may cater for the needs of several local schools.

13. Wherever possible technical schools should be located near appropriate industries and they should function in close cooperation with the industry concerned.

14. Apprenticeship training being an important part of the training needed, suitable legislation should be passed making it obligatory for the industry to afford., facilities, to students for practical training.

15. In the- planning of Technical and Technological education at all levels, representatives of Commerce and Industry should be closely associated with the educationists so, that in the planning and direction of such; education and in the maintenance of standards their view may be given effective weight.

16. A small cess to be called the "Industrial Education Cess' should be levied on industries and the proceeds of this Cess should be used for the furtherance of Technical education.

17. In the interests of evolving a suitable pattern of technical courses at the Secondary stage, the All-India Council for Technical Education and the bodies functioning under it should be utilised for working out the details of the courses. Other Types of Schools

18. Public schools should continue to exist for the present and the pattern of education given in them should be brought into reasonable conformity, with the general pattern of national education. Such schools should gradually become self-supporting, but during the transitional period of the next five years, State or Central assistance should be given to them on a gradually diminishing scale.

19. The States or the Centre should provide for certain free studentships in them to be given based on merit to selected students.

20. Several residential schools should be established, more particularly in certain rural areas, to provide proper opportunities for the education of children and particularly to meet the needs of children whose education suffers at present owing to the exigencies of service of their parents.

21. "Residential Day Schools" should be established in suitable centres to provide greater opportunities for teacher-pupil contact and for developing recreational and extra-curricular activities.

22. A larger number of schools should be established to meet the needs of handicapped children. Co-education

23. While no distinction need be made between education imparted to boys and girls’ special facilities for the study of home science should be made available in all girls' schools and co-education or mixed schools.

24. Efforts should be made by State Governments to open separate schools for girls wherever there is demand for them.

25. Definite conditions should be laid down regarding co-educational or mixed schools to satisfy the special needs of girl students and women members of the teaching staff.

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