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Computer technology:

  • A computer is a device that may be programmed to automatically perform a series of mathematical or logical operations. Known as programmes, generalised sets of operations can be followed by modern computers. These applications give computers the ability to carry out a staggering array of jobs.

  • During World War II, physicist John Mauchly, engineer J. Presper Eckert, Jr., and their colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania designed the first programmable general-purpose electronic digital computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC).

  • Computer hardware

  • The physical elements of a computer, its hardware, are generally divided into the central processing unit (CPU), main memory (or random-access memory, RAM), and peripherals. The last class encompasses all sorts of input and output (I/O) devices. The CPU and RAM are integrated circuits (ICs).

  • Input devices

  • A plethora of devices falls into the category of input peripheral. Typical examples include keyboards, mice, trackballs, pointing sticks, joysticks, digital tablets, touch pads, and scanners.

  • Output devices

  • Printers are a common example of output devices. New multifunction peripherals that integrate printing, scanning, and copying into a single device are also popular.

  • Communication devices

  • The most familiar example of a communication device is the common telephone modem (from modulator/demodulator).

  • Operating systems

  • Operating systems manage a computer’s resources—memory, peripheral devices, and even CPU access—and provide a battery of services to the user’s programs. UNIX, first developed for minicomputers and now widely used on both PCs and mainframes, is one example; Linux (a version of UNIX), Microsoft Corporation’s Windows XP, and Apple Computer’s OS X are others.

  • Networking

  • Computer communication may occur through wires, optical fibres, or radio transmissions.

  • Local area networks (LANs) connect computers within a building or small group of buildings.

  • Wide area networks (WANs) span cities, countries, and the globe, generally using telephone lines and satellite links.

  • Computer software

  • Software denotes programs that run on computers.

  • Most popular programming languages:

  • Some of the top programming languages include the following:

  • C

  • Java

  • Python

  • C++

  • C#

  • Visual Basic

  • JavaScript

  • PHP

  • SQL

  • Assembly language

  • R

  • Groovy

  • Types of Computers:

  • Some of the most common types of computers:

  • 1. Personal Computers (PCs): Personal computers are the most common type of computer, designed for individual use. computers.

  • 2. Workstations: Workstations are high-end computers designed for professional use, such as in fields like engineering, architecture, or graphic design.

  • 3. Servers: Servers are computers that provide services to other computers, such as storing files, managing networks, or hosting websites.

  • 4. Mainframe Computers: Mainframe computers are large, powerful computers designed for processing vast amounts of data and supporting multiple users simultaneously.

  • 5. Supercomputers: Supercomputers are the most powerful and expensive computers in the world, designed for performing complex calculations and simulations. They are typically used in scientific research, weather forecasting, or military applications.

  • 6. Embedded Systems: Embedded systems are computers that are built into other devices, such as cars, appliances, or medical equipment.

  • 7. Smartphones and Tablets: Smartphones and tablets are small, portable computers that are designed for mobile use.

  • 8. Gaming Consoles: Gaming consoles are specialized computers designed for playing video games.


The Application of Computers:

Every industry uses computers today. Today, it has grown increasingly difficult to lead a regular life without using a computer. We'll go over the fundamental uses of computers in the following industries:

Business

A computer is an integral aspect of all commercial organisations due to its fast computation speed, diligence, correctness, dependability, and versatility.

In commercial settings, computers are employed fo-

  • Payroll calculations

  • Budgeting

  • Sales Analysis

  • Financial forecasting

  • Managing employee database

  • Maintenance of stocks, etc.

Banking

Today, banking is almost totally dependent on computers.

Banks provide the following facilities −

  • Online accounting facility, which includes checking current balance, making deposits and overdrafts, checking interest charges, shares, and trustee records.

  • ATM machines which are completely automated are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks.

Insurance

Insurance firms use computers to maintain the most recent versions of all records. Computers are frequently used by banking institutions, stock brokerage firms, and insurance companies.

Insurance firms keep a database on all their policyholders that contain data demonstrating -

  • Starting date of the policies

  • Next due instalment of a policy

  • Maturity date

  • Interests due.

  • Survival benefits

  • Bonus

Education

The computer helps in providing a lot of facilities in the education system.

  • The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education).

  • CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.

  • Computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of the number of computer students.

  • There are a number of methods by which educational institutions can use a computer to educate students.

  • It is used to prepare a database about the performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis.

Marketing

The following are some computer usages in marketing:

Advertising – To increase sales, advertising experts use computers to produce artwork and visuals, write and edit material, and print and distribute advertisements.

Online catalogues with direct order entry by customers and access to product information have made it feasible for consumers to purchase online from the comfort of their own homes.

Healthcare

Hospitals, laboratories, and pharmacies now heavily rely on computers. They are utilised in hospitals to maintain patient and medication records. Additionally, it is utilised for scanning and disease diagnosis. Computerised devices also perform ECG, EEG, ultrasounds, CT scans, and other medical procedures.

The primary areas of health care where computers are used are listed below-

  • Diagnostic System − Computers are used to collect data and identify the cause of illness.

  • Lab-diagnostic System − All tests can be done, and the reports are prepared by computer.

  • Patient Monitoring System − These are used to check the patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG, etc.

  • Pharma Information System − A computer is used to check drug labels, expiry dates, harmful side effects, etc.

  • Surgery − Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.

Engineering Design

Computers are frequently used in engineering.

  • Structural Engineering: CAD (Computer Aided Design), which allows for the creation and modification of images, is one of the key areas. Some of the fields include: Structural Engineering Ships, buildings, budgets, aeroplanes, etc. all require stress and strain analysis.

  • Industrial Engineering: Computers are used in industrial engineering to design, implement, and improve integrated systems of people, materials, and equipment.

  • Architectural Engineering: Using both 2D and 3D drawings, computers can be used to plan cities, design buildings, and determine the variety of buildings that can be placed on a given site.

Military

The use of computers in defense is widespread. modern missiles, weapons, tanks, etc. Computerized control systems are used by the military as well. Some military locations that have made use of computers are Missile Control

  • Military Communication

  • Military Operation and Planning

  • Smart Weapons

Communication

A message, an idea, a picture, or a speech is communicated when it is received and understood by the intended recipient in its entirety. This category includes some key areas like

  • E-mail

  • Chatting

  • Usenet

  • FTP

  • Telnet

  • Videoconferencing

Government

The use of computers in government services is crucial. These are a few of the major fields in this category:

  • Budgets

  • Sales tax department

  • Income tax department

  • Computation of male/female ratio

  • Computerization of voter’s lists

  • Computerization of PAN card

  • Weather forecasting


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हाल ही के पोस्ट्स

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Samudrayan Mission of India

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