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Gaganyaan Mission of India

अपडेट करने की तारीख: 8 अग॰ 2023

The primary mandate of HSFC is to spearhead ISRO's Gaganyaan programme through coordinated efforts and to focus all activities undertaken in other ISRO centres, research laboratories in India, Indian academia and industry towards mission accomplishment. HSFC, as the lead centre for human spaceflight activities, will maintain high standards of reliability and human safety while undertaking R&D activities in emerging technology areas such as life support systems, human factors engineering, bio-astronautics, crew training and human evaluation and certification. These areas would be important components for future human spaceflight activities such as rendezvous and docking, space station construction, and interplanetary crewed missions to the Moon/Mars and near-Earth asteroids.


The Gaganyaan project aims to demonstrate the capability of human spaceflight by launching a crew of 3 members into a 400 km orbit for a 3-day mission and returning them safely to Earth by landing in the Indian Ocean.

The project will be executed through an optimal strategy, taking into account the indigenous expertise, the experience of Indian industry, the intellectual capabilities of Indian academia and research institutions, and the cutting-edge technologies available with international agencies. The prerequisites for the Gaganyaan mission include the development of many critical technologies, including a human-rated launch vehicle to carry the crew safely into space, a life-support system to provide the crew with an Earth-like environment in space, emergency crew evacuation and evolving crew management aspects for training, recovery and rehabilitation of the crew.

Several precursor missions are planned to demonstrate the technology readiness before the actual human spaceflight mission. These demonstration missions include Integrated AirDrop Test (IADT), Pad Abort Test (PAT) and Test Vehicle (TV) flights. The safety and reliability of all systems will be demonstrated in unmanned missions before manned missions.

Human rated LVM3 - HLVM3

LVM3 Rocket - ISRO's proven and reliable heavy-lift launch vehicle has been identified as the launch vehicle for the Gaganyaan mission. It consists of solid, liquid and cryogenic stages. All systems in the LVM3 launch vehicle will be reconfigured to meet human-rated requirements and christened as Human-Rated LVM3. HLVM3 will be able to launch the Orbital Module to an intended low Earth orbit of 400 km.

HLVM3 consists of a Crew Escape System (CES), powered by a set of fast-acting, high-burn rate solid propellant engines, which will ensure that the Crew Module, together with the crew, is moved to a safe distance in the event of an emergency, either on the launch pad or during the ascent phase.

Orbital Module

The Orbital Module (OM), which will orbit the Earth, consists of the Crew Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM). The OM is equipped with state-of-the-art avionics systems with appropriate redundancy for human safety.

The CM is the habitable space with an Earth-like environment for the crew. It is a double-walled structure consisting of a pressurised metal inner structure and a non-pressurised outer structure with a thermal protection system (TPS). It houses crew interfaces, human-centric products, life support, avionics and deceleration systems. It is also designed for re-entry to ensure the safety of the crew during descent to touchdown.

The SM will be used to provide the necessary support to the CM in orbit. It is an unpressurised structure containing thermal systems, propulsion systems, power systems, avionics systems and deployment mechanisms.

New technologies developed for Gaganyaan

Human safety is of paramount importance for the Gaganyaan mission. To ensure this, various new technologies are being developed and implemented, comprising engineering systems and human-centric systems.

Crew training for Gaganyaan

The Astronaut Training Facility set up in Bengaluru provides classroom training, physical fitness training, simulator training and flight suit training. The training modules include academic courses, Gaganyaan flight systems, microgravity familiarisation through parabolic flights, aeromedical training, recovery and survival training, flight procedure mastery and crew training simulator training. Aeromedical training, regular flight practice and yoga are also included as part of the training.

Astronaut Training Facility

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Samudrayan Mission of India


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